Socotra Island is distinguished by the richness and uniqueness of plants endemic to the island, such as the dragon blood tree and begonias. The biosphere is renowned for the two enigmatic taxa, the Dirachma socotrana, considered to belong to a ‘living fossil’, and the Socotran pomegranate. The waterscape in the island is marked by Detwah Lagoon which is the only refuge for the Stingray and the bluespotted ribbontail ray. The biosphere is a safe haven for the Egyptian vulture and a series of bird species named after the Island such as the cormorant, starling, sunbird, bunting, cisticola, sparrow, golden-winged grosbeak, and the warbler. Marine habitats nestle communities of coral, macro-algae, seagrasses and mangroves. Local communities frequently go into the wild in search of the giant succulent tree, cucumber tree, the rare Socotran pomegranate, aloe, Socotran frankincense tree and the red sap of dragon's blood tree. The Portuguese recorded the presence of water buffaloes in the early 17th century.