The Shouf biosphere reserve overlooks the Bekaa Valley and the Mediterranean Sea. It holds cedar relics, kermes oak, gall oak, brant’s oak and stone pine. The mix of deciduous trees is made of Judas tree, Taurus maple, wild-service tree and three-lobed apple. The biosphere is a refuge for the golden jackal, red fox, porcupine, Persian squirrel, striped hyenas, rock hyrax and the greater mouse-eared bat. It is a safe haven to the Syrian serin, Eurasian eagle owl, Chukar partridge, long-legged buzzard, the wolf, wild boar, wildcat and jungle cat. The waterscape in Ammiq features flowering ash tree, and the black-winged pratincole, ferruginous duck, the white pelican and great snipe. The reserve is home to aromatic and edible plants such as the Biblical hyssop, rosemary, laurel, hawthorn and tumble thistle. It is also home to medicinal plants such as lavender, Syrian catnip, catmint, oregano, Greek sage, bear plum, thyme and fan-leaved service tree. The biosphere neighborhoods offer a variety of historical vestige of Greek and Roman civilizations, the Mamluk era and the Ottoman period.