The Djebel Ichkeul area was managed as a hunting reserve during the dynasty of the Hafsids (1240 AD). The waterscape of Ichkeul attracts flocks of four hundred thousand (400,000) birds during winter. The enchanting mix of waterscape and landscape hosts a variety of agricultural and pasture lands, dense maquis, open forests, garrigue and marshes. The wide array of plants include lentisk, wild olive, tree spurge, Phoenician juniper, carob, Barbary thuja, sage-leaved rock-rose and the endemic germander; and the moisture-tolerant plants grouping with fennel-leaved pondweed, reeds, glasswort, the saltmarsh and lakeshore bulrushes. Ichkeul is a safe haven for wild boar, Rüppell's and red foxes, fennec fox and caracal. The biosphere is a refuge for waterbirds, such as the common coot, common pochard, the endangered sand verbena, marbled marmonet, the common greylag goose, stork and pink flamingo. The eco-museum and visitor Centre are the places to be to get to know the wildlife in Ichkeul. The biosphere offers hot springs for anti-rheumatic baths and skin diseases. The biosphere neighborhoods hold Salt Grotto (Ghar El Melh), an ancient sea bay featuring the most important delta in northern Tunisia, and Mejen El Chitan, known as the Lake of waterlilies. It brings back the history of the place with Utica archaeological site, Utica ancient Phoenician and Carthaginian city.