Djebel Bou Hedma holds mountain ranges extending along southern Tunisia. The waterscape is marked by numerous water springs and permanent streams meandering in the Oued Bou Hedma and Oued El Mech. Sebkhet Noual wetland lying on the biosphere foothills is a refuge for a countless number of waterbirds such as the houbara bustard. The landscape diversity is marked by the pre-Saharan savannah and pseudo-savannah, steppes and lowlands. The mix of plants consists of the Phoenician juniper, olive, pre-Saharan Tunisian sumac and Mt. Atlas mastic tree, umbrella thorn acacia, truffles and white broom. The mountains host the Mouflon, Goundi, caracal, wild boar, jackal and wildcat. The biosphere is a refuge for the Bonnelli's eagle, long-eared owl, Barbary partridge, skylark, blue-necked ostrich, crested lark, barred owl and trumpeter finch. It is a safe haven for Mhorr gazelle, Barbary lion, guinea fowl, oryx, addax, leopard, cheetah and red-necked ostrich. The ecological museum with displays of plants and animals is the place to be for nature lovers. The biosphere preserves vestiges of Roman Empire settlements. Nowadays, the area hosts a sedentary community relying on grazing, forest clearing and farming activities.